DCS: MiG-15bis

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Developed in the years immediately following World War II, the MiG-15bis was a first-generation jet fighter designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau of the Soviet Union. The MiG-15bis is a single engine, swept-wing jet that saw over 15,000 copies produced. The MiG-15 gained fame in the skies over Korea where it battled the F-86 Sabre and other allied aircraft. It proved an excellent match to the Sabre, and it often came down to the skill of the pilot that determined who made it home and who was left dangling from a parachute. Having an excellent thrust-to-weight ratio and good climbing characteristics, the MiG-15bis was also armed with two NR-23 23mm cannons and a single, powerful N-37 37mm cannon. Not surprisingly, it is considered by many as one of the deadliest fighters of the era.

Release: 03/11/2016

Introduction

DCS: MiG-15bis is a simulation of the Soviet Union's vanguard jet fighter and one of the most mass-produced jets in history – the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15. The MiG-15 gained fame in the skies over Korea where it battled the American F-86 Sabre and other allied aircraft during the Korean War (1950-1953). The MiG-15's appearance in Korea became known as the "Korean surprise" due to its unexpected combat effectiveness. From late December 1950 up to the end of war in July 1953, the MiG-15 proved to be the primary aerial opponent of the equally distinguished F-86 Sabre.

The MiG-15 is a swept-wing jet fighter developed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich experimental design bureau (OKB) in the late 1940s, entering service with the Soviet Air and Air Defense Forces in 1949. The aircraft has an extensive combat history that includes several conflicts apart from the Korean War, including the Arab-Israeli wars. Thanks to its high reliability, remarkable performance, ease of flight training and operations, the MiG-15 remained in service with the USSR for nearly 20 years and in foreign service until 2006 (Albanian Air Force[source])! Apart from fighter missions, it was used as a reconnaissance aircraft, target aircraft and prototype for a variety of weapons and systems tests. The following modifications of the MiG-15 have been produced: MiG-15, MiG-15S, MiG-15PB, MiG-15bis, MiG-15Rbis(SR), MiG-15S6IS(SD-UPB), MiG-15UTM, MiG-15P UTI, MiG-15M. In total, over 15,000 of these aircraft were manufactured (almost twice as many as the American counterpart, the Sabre). The aircraft is armed with three cannons (two 23 mm and one 37 mm) and can be further armed with two 100 kg bombs.

The MiG-15bis model featured in the simulation is an upgraded model from the original, powered by the more powerful Soviet-produced VK-1 engine in place of the original British Rolls Royce Nene-I (II).

Model overview

The DCS: MiG-15bis model developed by the experienced team at Belsimtek (BST) is a virtual reproduction of the famous aircraft. The exterior, cockpit and operation of all aircraft systems have been thoroughly simulated. Following in the footsteps of previous BST models, the engine and flight models demonstrate performance dynamics that very closely match those of the real aircraft. The armament system, including cannon and bombing systems, is modeled accurately in full operational detail. An in-depth design of each aircraft system was the focus behind the modeling effort, leading to complex and dynamic interdependencies between systems. This complex modeling approach produces a virtual, "breathing" aircraft and helps to immerse the player in the simulation environment and the military machine under his control. Particular attention was paid to capturing the audio environment of the MiG-15 pilot, guided by the principle: "if the sound exists in the real MiG, then it must be present in our simulation!"

DCS: MiG-15bis

Given the chance, real world pilots have shown uncharacteristic enthusiasm when flying BST's MiG-15bis. The aircraft is forgiving (both in reality and in our simulation) and is much easier to takeoff and land than propeller-driven aircraft. This means the model will not be difficult to master even for beginners. Despite the "hardcore" depth of flight, engine and systems simulation, the design team focused on further increasing, compared to previous BST products, assistance for beginner pilots – starting from entering the cockpit and throughout the entire flight (described further below).

The relative ease of flight control, in particular during takeoff and landing, high flight speeds, and most importantly lack of overly complex aircraft systems to master – all generate an atmosphere of the true romance of a military pilot. It is personal skill and not the sophistication of systems and missiles that determine the victor in this generation of dogfighters. Mastering such aircraft is a matter of determination and effort, as well as a cause for personal pride of achievement!

We are confident that the care and dedication invested by every member of the BST team in this simulation will provide players with real enjoyment when strapping into the MiG-15bis - from the first takeoff run to the pinnacle of mastering this legendary aircraft. As always, we are excited to take part in the exploration of combat aviation history, its engineering and human accomplishments, and above all to take like-minded enthusiasts along for the ride in this virtual MiG-15bis!

Cockpit

The MiG-15bis cockpit model is created to the highest standards set by BST – maximum accuracy. The model is based on the MiG-15bis modification equipped with the OSP-48 instrument approach system, i.e. with additional radio navigation equipment. Cockpit indicators, instrument panel, control panels, flight controls and individual cockpit elements are covered with high resolution textures and corresponding animations.

The cockpit is a true 3D environment with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) for the camera, allowing the player to move freely, within limits, in the cockpit space to see or reach as required. The point of view can be controlled in all six degrees by the keyboard, mouse, and external view control devices such as TrackIR or Oculus Rift.

Cockpit MiG-15bis
Cockpit MiG-15bis
Cockpit MiG-15bis
Cockpit MiG-15bis

To ease the learning curve, each cockpit control element is provided with a pop-up hint activated by a mouse-hover over the control.

Cockpit MiG-15bis
Cockpit MiG-15bis

To assist the virtual pilot with overcoming the inherent limitations of simulated flight control, the MiG-15bis kneeboard includes a special systems status page that displayed current status of key aircraft and weapons systems as well as the keyboard shortcuts to adjust them.

Cockpit MiG-15bis

Additionally, the BST MiG-15bis is the first DCS module to introduce a new AI Helper feature, which reminds players about important steps in case they are missed during start-up or flight.

Cockpit MiG-15bis

3D model

DCS: MiG-15bis features an accurate and highly detailed 3D model of the aircraft with a variety of historically accurate high resolution liveries. Multiple-texture maps, normal maps and specular maps are used to achieve a variety of special effects. All moving control surfaces are correctly modeled and animated.

3D model
3D model
3D model

Dimensions

Dimensions

Specifications

AircraftUnitMiG-15bis
Normal crewper acft1
Operational characteristics
Max allowable grosslbs / kg13459 / 6105
Basic weightlbs / kg7892 / 3580
Useful load (with pilot 100kg)lbs / kg2983 / 1353
Weight with payload for normal missionlbs / kg11120 / 5044
Fuel usable capacity internal (0.83 kg/l)lbs/gal // kg/l2584/373 // 1172 / 1412
Normal cruise speed (for max range at 10.000m, gross weight 4.600-4.900kg)indicated air speed (IAS)
kts / kmh
243-254 / 450-470
Fuel consumption rate (for loiter at 10.000m, 350 kmh IAS, gross weight 4.600-4.900kg, fuel density 0.83 kg/l)lbs/h // kg/h1464 // 664
Maximum speed at sea level, true air speed (TAS)kts / kmh581 / 1076
Maximum speed at 10.000m (33.000 feet)TAS
kts / kmh
535 / 990
Service ceiling (for take-off weight 5044kg)ft / m51016 / 15550
Time of climb altitude up to 5000m (at 11.560rpm and 680-560 kmh TAS)m/minaround 2min
Maximum rate-of-climb (at 11.560rpm):
at 1000m altitude
at 5000m altitude
m/min // maximum lift-to-drag ratio airspeed, TAS kmh
2790 // 710
2100 // 710
Maximum range (w/o drop tank), altitude 10.000m, 450-470 kmh IASnm / km648 / 1200
Maximum range (with drop tank 300L), altitude 10.000m, 460-480 kmh IASnm / km944 / 1749
Maximum range (with drop tank 600L), altitude 10.000m, 440-460 kmh IASnm / km1199 / 2220
Maximum endurance (w/o drop tank):
altitude 10.000m, 330-350 kmh IAS
altitude 5.000m, 330-350 kmh IAS
hour.min
2.05
1.45
Maximum maneuvering load factorG8
Ultimate load factorG12
Dimensions
Lengthft-in / m32.94 / 10.04
Width (wing span)ft-in / m33.07 / 10.08
Height to finft-in / m12.14 / 3.7
Wing sweepdeg35
Main wheel trackft-in / m12.5 / 3.81
Main wheel base ft-in / m10.43 / 3.18
Weapons
23mm guns: machine gun 23mm calibernumber guns x number rounds2 x 80
37mm guns: machine gun 37mm calibernumber guns x number rounds1 x 40
BombsNumber x caliber (kg)2 x 100kg

General assembly

General assembly
  1. Battery
  2. Oxygen bottles
  3. ASP-3N automatic gunsight
  4. Armoured windshield
  5. Pilot's ejection seat
  6. Sliding portion of the canopy
  7. Pitot tube
  8. Radio antenna
  9. Hydraulic fluid tank
  1. VK-1 engine and gearbox
  2. Rear fuel tank
  3. Vertical stabilizer
  4. Rudder
  5. Tail navigation light
  6. Elevator trim tab
  7. Elevator
  8. Speed break
  9. Flap
  1. Aileron trim tab
  2. Aileron
  3. Left wingtip navigation light
  4. Main landing gear
  5. Wing fence
  6. Forward fuel tank
  7. Extendable armament undercarriage
  8. Nose landing gear
  9. Nose cone with headlight

Armament

The primary mission of the MiG-15bis is destruction of airborne targets, including hostile fighter aircraft. However it can be used for limited ground attack operations using onboard cannon systems or two 100 kg bombs.

The armament system includes cannon systems, bombing system, ASP-3N automatic gunsight, S-13 gun camera, cockpit armoring, and signal flares.

Cannon armament (1 x 37 mm N-37D; 2 x 23 mm NR-23)

- cannon armament (1 x 37 mm N-37D; 2 x 23 mm NR-23);

1 x 100 kg bomb carried on each wing

- 1 x 100 kg bomb carried on each wing;

ASP-3N automatic gunsight

- ASP-3N automatic gunsight.

VK-1 turbojet engine

Unlike the original MiG-15, the MiG-15bis model is powered by the Soviet-produced VK-1 engine in place of the Rolls-Royce Nene I (II). The engine produces 2700 kg (5950 lbs) of static thrust.

VK-1 turbojet engine
  1. Gearbox
  2. Centrifugal compressor
  3. 9 can combustion chambers
  4. Compressor turbine
  5. Engine oil system components
  6. Compressed air supplied to the combustion chambers
  7. Jet pipe and exhaust nozzle (not shown)

The VK-1 engine model in DCS: MiG-15bis is created as a gas flow chamber, the dynamic specifications for which are determined in real time by a complex system of supporting individual models of primary powerplant elements like the air intake, centrifugal compressor, combustion chambers, compressor turbine, exhaust. The model also includes the fuel supply system and its operational characteristics. Together, these individual model elements combine to provide the following important engine operation specifics:

  • Successful engine start depends on correct start-up procedures to ensure that normal operational parameters are met. Failing to do so may result in abnormal conditions such as a "hot start" and force a start abort.
  • Idle power RPM depend on flight conditions: altitude, mach number, as well as atmospheric conditions such as temperature and pressure.
  • Short-term engine overspeeding and overheating is possible with aggressive throttle control.
  • Engine responsiveness varies depending on RPM.
  • The engine exhaust temperature is based on a complex relationship of engine power setting, flight and atmospheric conditions.
  • Specific fuel consumption is based on a non-linear relationship with engine power setting and flight conditions.
  • Engine performance dynamics (RPM and gas temperatures) are modeled in real time and produce accurate results during engine start, in flight, and during engine shut down.
  • Windmilling of the engine is modeled and allows for an air start of a failed engine, depending on engine RPM.
  • Unstable operation of the engine is modeled, such as engine surge, flameout, etc.
  • Engine operation in zero and negative G is limited by the fuel supply system.

Engine fuel control system

The engine fuel control system provides atomized fuel to the combustion chambers as required to ensure normal engine operation. Fuel flow is provided by fuel pumps according to throttle position set by the pilot in the cockpit, while actual fuel supply to the engine is metered main fuel regulator.

Engine fuel control system
  1. Fuel tank
  2. Fuel filter
  3. Starting fuel pump
  4. Barostat isolation valve (servo)
  5. Barostat regulator
  6. Igniter
  7. Fuel nozzle
  1. Large slot manifold (operating)
  2. Small slot manifold (starting and operating)
  3. Flow divider
  4. Shutoff valve
  5. Shutoff valve switch
  6. Fuel control valve
  7. Main fuel regulator
14a. Throttle
  1. High pressure line
  2. High pressure pump
  3. RPM governor
  4. Fuel bypass line
  5. Fuel drain line
  6. Fuel tank boost pump (forward tank)

Airplane fuel system

The airplane fuel system is designed to store onboard fuel and provide fuel supply to the engine through the fuel control system.

Airplane fuel system
  1. Drop tank fueling inlet
  2. Pressurized air line
  3. Right drop tank
  4. Fuel line to forward tank
  5. Forward tank fueling inlet
  6. Fuel quantity probe
  1. Forward tank fuel return line
  2. Rear left and right fuel tank connecting line
  3. Rear right fuel tank
  4. Rear left fuel tank
  5. Rear left fuel tank filling inlet
  6. PTsR-1 fuel pump (rear tank to forward tank)
  1. Left drop tank
  2. Engine filter
  3. Negative G compartment
  4. PNV-2 booster pump
  5. Drain line nozzle
  6. Forward main tank

The fuel system consists of two main tanks with a total capacity of 1410 L. The forward tank has a capacity of 1250 L; the rear tank 160 L. The rear tank is constructed of two separate, interconnected containers of 80 L each. The fuel quantity is displayed by the fuel quantity gauge (6) installed on the forward tank, however the gauge only displays up to 1050 L.

A fuel warning light illuminates in the cockpit when remaining fuel quantity reaches 300 L.

Two drop tanks with a capacity of 300, 400, or 600 L can be carried on the wings.

Electrical power system

The MiG-15bis is equipped with a 28.5 VDC single-circuit electrical power system. Power sources include a single 12A-30 battery and a ГСР-3000 (GSR-3000) generator with a 3.0 kW power output capacity. Both power sources are connected to a single bus.

Because the airplane is not equipped with an AC power system, each consumer requiring AC power is equipped with an individual inverter (115 V and/or 36 V).

In case of generator failure, the battery supports aircraft flight in daytime and in cloudy conditions for 24-26 minutes or 20-23 minutes at night.

Utility hydraulic system

The utility hydraulic system provides:

  • raising and lowering of the landing gear;
  • raising and lowering of flaps;
  • opening and closing of air brakes.
Utility hydraulic system
  1. Automatic braking cylinder
  2. Landing gear valve
  3. Pressure gauge (up to 250 kg/sm2)
  4. Hydraulic accumulator
  5. Filter
  6. Airbrake solenoid control valve
    1. 6a. Airbrake extension line
    2. 6b. Airbrake retraction line
  1. Relief valve
  2. Pump
  3. Check valve
    1. 9а. Hydraulic fluid tank
  4. Pressure reducing valve
  5. Airbrake control cylinders
  6. Hydraulic lock valve
  7. Ground pump valve
  8. Flaps locking cylinder
  1. Flaps cylinder
  2. Landing gear bay doors cylinder
  3. Main landing gear locking cylinder
  4. Equalizing valve
    1. 18a. Main landing gear retraction cylinder
  5. Flaps distributing valve
  6. Nose gear locking cylinder
  7. One-way valves (12)
  8. Nose gear retraction cylinder

Lateral control hydraulic system

The lateral control hydraulic system is designed to reduce the stick forces required for lateral flight control (roll). The system is completely independent from the utility hydraulic system (separate hydraulic tank and pump). The system supplies hydraulic fluid to the hydraulic booster under constant pressure to actuate aileron control.

Lateral control hydraulic system
  1. Hydraulic booster
  2. Hydraulic accumulator
  3. One-way valve
  4. Relief valve
  5. Idle ground operation pressure gauge connector
  6. Hydraulic fluid tank
  7. One-way valve
  8. Compressor bleed air
  1. Drain line
  2. To the utility hydraulic system tank
  3. Ground pump valves
  4. Hydraulic pump
  5. Filter
  6. Relief valve
  7. Pressure gauge
  8. Shutoff valve

Flight control system

In the 1950s the concept of an aircraft's flight control system included not only controls associated with pitch, roll, yaw, and engine control (stick, pedals, throttle, trimmers), but also flap and airbrake controls.

The flight control system includes cockpit controls, associated control surfaces, and the linkages between them.

Flight control system
  1. Pedal (right)
  2. Control lines leading out of the cockpit
  3. Hydraulic booster
  4. Aileron control line
  5. Aileron control joint (actuator and yoke)
  6. Control link joint column
  1. Elevator control line
  2. Rudder control line
  3. Elevator actuator
  4. Elevator trimmer actuator
  5. Aileron trimmer actuator
  6. Flight control node

Elevator (pitch) control: accomplished by pushing and pulling the flight control stick forward and aft (pulling aft in the image below):

Elevator (pitch) control
Elevator (pitch) control

Elevator trim control: accomplished using the elevator trim control switch on the left side of the cockpit via an electrical trim control motor installed in the stabilizer spar.

Elevator trim control

Aileron (roll) control: accomplished by deflecting the flight control stick to the left or right (left in the image below):

Aileron (roll) control
Aileron (roll) control

Aileron trim control: accomplished using the aileron trim control switch via an electrical motor installed in the left wing rear beam.

Aileron trim control

Rudder (yaw) control: accomplished by pushing the left or right pedal (for left or right yaw, respectively) (left pedal application shown in image below):

Rudder (yaw) control
Rudder (yaw) control

Forward pedal travel is limited to 29° from the neutral position. At this limit, rudder deflection amounts to 20°.

Flap control: accomplished using the flap control handle arranged vertically at the rear of the left cockpit console:

Flap control
Flap control

The flaps are installed on the wings between the ailerons and the fuselage. Flaps are extended to their maximum position of 55° when landing. For takeoffs, flaps are set to the intermediate (takeoff) position of 20°.

Airbrake control: The airbrake can be extended either by pressing the airbrake button on the control stick (for short use while the button is held down) or setting the airbrake switch on the left cockpit console to the OPEN (forward) position for longer use (for example when diving).

Airbrake control
Airbrake control

The airbrakes open to an angle of 55°±1°. Movement of the airbrakes from the closed position is indicated by the airbrake caution light on the left cockpit console, which is connected to a microswitch on the right airbrake paddle.

Airbrake control

Environmental control system

The environmental control system is used to provide the pilot with normal environmental conditions (cockpit temperature and pressure) when performing flights at all operational altitudes. The ECS consists of the air supply and auxiliary ventilation subsystems.

Environmental control system
  1. Windshield blower and cockpit blowing duct
  2. Cockpit air supply valve with slide valve
  3. Cold air line OKN-30 one-way valve
  4. Hot air line OKN-30 one-way valve
  5. Air supply from engine
  6. Line splitter into hot and cold air supply lines
  1. Filter
  2. KRP-48 safety check valve
  3. Air drain line with plug (removed before flight)
  4. Pressure regulator
  5. Leg warming blower
  6. Auxiliary ventilation system

Air is supplied to the cockpit from the engine compressor (5). Warm air from the engine compressor is fed through the air filter (7) and one-way valve (4) to the cockpit air supply valve (2) and further to the blowing duct (1), located under the front windshield and along the canopy sides. The purpose of the blowing duct is to use air flowing into cockpit for windshield and canopy defogging.

Cockpit air is supplied from the engine compressor only. Hot and cold air generation is achieved by splitting a common pipeline into two parts and selectively insulating only one of them.

The cockpit air supply valve is an element of both the air supply and pneumatic systems. It is a cylindrical plug valve, which the pilot can use to regulate (control) the cockpit air supply.

Environmental control system
  1. Cockpit pressurization line
  2. Valve setting pointer
  3. Cold air line
  4. Valve
  5. Hot air line

The cockpit air supply valve is connected to the cockpit pressurization line, which supplies air at a pressure of 2.9±0.2 kg/cm2 into cockpit pressurization hose (from the pneumatic system).

Auxiliary ventilation system

The MiG-15bis is equipped with an auxiliary ventilation system (12), which can be used by the pilot to ventilate the cockpit when flying at low altitudes in hot outside temperatures. In the simulation, the auxiliary ventilation system can be used to ventilate out cockpit smoke in case of fire (WIP).

Correct use of the environmental control system is an important part of flight operational safety and failure to configure the related controls properly can lead to the pilot's loss of consciousness and canopy fogging (WIP).

Pneumatic system

The pneumatic system consists of the main and emergency pneumatic systems:

Pneumatic system
  1. Emergency gear extension valve
  2. Emergency pressure gauges
  3. Emergency flap extension valve
  4. Emergency flap compressed air tank
  5. Emergency and one-way valves
  6. Charging valve
  7. Cockpit pressurization valve
  8. Air filter
  9. Pneumatic system pressure gauge
  1. RV-50 and RV-3 pressure reduction valves
  2. Emergency tanks charging valve
    1. 11а. Cockpit air supply valve (from the environmental control system) and slide valve (from the pneumatic system) in a common casing
  3. PU-8 differential valve
  4. PU-7 braking valve
  5. Landing gear extension cylinders
  6. Hydraulic lock
  7. Landing gear bay doors cylinder
  8. Flap extension cylinder
  1. Main air tanks
  2. Onboard charging connector
  3. Emergency air tanks inside the landing gear struts
  4. Main landing gear wheel (with brake drum and pad)
  5. Braking system two-pointer pressure gauge
  6. Gun reload shutoff valve
  7. Gun reload receiver
  1. A - air supply for canopy strip seal
  2. B - air supply for the gun reloading system

The main pneumatic system provides:

  • main landing gear brakes control;
  • air supply for canopy strip seal (the cockpit pressurization line) (A);
  • gun reloading (B).

The emergency pneumatic system provides:

  • emergency gear extension;
  • emergency flap extension.

Fire extinguishing system

The fire extinguishing system is designed to extinguish a fire in the fire hazard zone of the engine, i.e. the area where damage to the engine may lead to an open flame. This zone encompasses the area from the rear of the combustion chambers to the compressor turbine.

Fire extinguishing system
  1. TEST button
  2. FIRE warning light
  3. Fire detectors (4)
  4. Manifold with gas escape ports for dissemination of extinguishing gas
  1. Engine
  2. Squibs
  3. Extinguisher bottles (filled with CO2)
  4. Activation button

The fire extinguishing system includes:

  • two extinguisher bottles (tanks) with squibs, filled with dehydrated CO2;
  • tubing and manifold installed on the engine;
  • four fire detectors;
  • FIRE warning light and activation button in the cockpit.

In case of a fire and temperature reaching 120 – 140°C in the engine compartment, the fire detectors signal a warning and the FIRE warning light illuminates in the cockpit. To active the fire extinguishers, the pilot presses the activation button for fire the squibs of the extinguisher bottles. Firing the squibs perferates the bottle cap membrane and releases the gas through the extinguisher line into the manifold, where it is dispersed around the fire hazard zone of the engine to extinguish the fire.

Oxygen supply system

The oxygen supply system is designed to provide the pilot with required oxygen supply in flight. The system consists of oxygen bottles (tanks), tubing lines, pressure gauges, KP-14 oxygen regulator, KP-15 parachute oxygen set.

Oxygen supply system
  1. Charging connector
  2. Charging valve
  3. Adapter
  4. Oxygen tanks (4 l, 2 l)
  5. Onboard supply valve
  1. МК-12 pressure gauge
  2. KR-14 pressure relief valve with emergency supply valve
  3. IK-14 flow indicator
  4. KP-14 oxygen regulator
  5. KP-15 parachute oxygen set

Oxygen supply system operation

Oxygen is maintained at a pressure of 150 kg/cm2 in the bottles (4). Under normal use, oxygen from the bottles flows to the charging valve (2) via a triple adapter, which connects the bottles with the onboard charging connector (1) for charging or with the onboard supply line for pilot use. From the charging valve, oxygen flows to the onboard supply valve (5). The supply line then leads to the KR-14 pressure relief valve (7), from which one of the lines leads to the pressure gauge (6), located on the left side of the instrument panel, while the other one leads to the KP-14 oxygen regulator (9).

The KP-14 regulator supplies the proper mixture of oxygen and air at all times, automatically supplying positive pressure-breathing at high altitudes. As altitude increases, the percentage of oxygen in the mixture increases as well.

A hose and oxygen mask are attached to the regulator. The regulator is connected to the IK-14 oxygen flow indicator (8). The KR-14 pressure relief valve decreases oxygen pressure to 2-3 kg/cm2 as it directs oxygen to the regulator. In the regulator, pure oxygen is mixed with surrounding cockpit air. The pilot breathes surrounding pressurized cockpit air up to a cockpit (pressurized) altitude of 2000 m, i.e. the pilot is not supplied with oxygen from the tanks by the oxygen supply system. At altitudes between 2000 and 8000 m, the percentage of oxygen in the regulator mixture begins to increase. At cockpit altitudes over 8000 m, the pilot is supplied with 100% oxygen.

Operation of the KP-14 oxygen regulator requires opening the diluter valve:

Oxygen supply system operation

The simulation assumes the pilot is always wearing the oxygen mask. Failure to open the diluter valve means the pilot will be starved of oxygen and may begin to lose consciousness in 30 - 40 seconds.

In case of a fire or smoke in the cockpit at high altitudes, use of emergency oxygen is recommended. To enable emergency oxygen flow, turn the emergency oxygen supply valve on the KR-14 pressure relief valve fully left (counterclockwise).

Oxygen supply system operation

In case of cockpit depressurization at altitudes of up to 12000 m, the oxygen supply system provides a sufficient supply of oxygen to allow for a descent to safe altitudes. Depressurization at altitudes above 12000 m is fatal.

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