DCS: P-51D Mustang
The North American Aviation P-51D fighter aircraft is a single-seat, low wing monoplane powered by a 12 cylinder V-1650-7 liquid cooled, Packard built Rolls Royce "Merlin" engine. The engine is equipped with a two-speed, two-stage supercharger and an automatic manifold pressure regulator. The engine spins a four blade Hamilton Standard Hydromatic constant speed propeller.
The Packard engine delivers approximately 1,490 horse power at sea level. The maximum altitude is approximately 40,000 feet. The supercharger ratios are approximately 6 to 1 in low blower mode and 8 to 1 in high blower mode.
The fuselage is a semi-monocoque, all-metal structure. The all-metal wings are built in two halves which are joined at the aircraft center line and are of full cantilever structure. The airfoil is of laminar-flow design, which provides low drag even at high speed. The tail section is metal with fabric-covered elevator and rudder control surfaces. The aircraft is flush-riveted throughout – another factor contributing to its great speed.
Two fuel tanks with a total capacity of 184 U.S. gallons are located inside the wing and an additional 85 gallon fuselage fuel tank is located aft of the cockpit.
The armament consists of six .50 caliber machine guns mounted in the wings. Streamlined bomb racks installed beneath each wing panel can accommodate one 100, 300, or 500-lb. bomb each, or a depth charge or chemical tank. The bomb racks can be easily removed. Bombs may be substituted by droppable combat fuel tanks with a capacity of 75 or 110 U.S. gallons each for long-range operations. The wing can also support up to 10 unguided rockets, or up to 6 if bombs are also loaded.
The DCS: P-51D cockpit is a 100% six-degrees of freedom (6 DOF) cockpit that allows complete freedom of movement around the cockpit. Each panel is reproduced in exacting detail to match 1940s era P-51Ds. This includes all panels, switches, dials, buttons being animated, rendered in the 3D, and with high-resolution textures. Both day and night lighting is available.
When the mouse is hovered over a cockpit control, a tool tip is displayed to indicate the controls function.
Multi-layer sample recordings from "Miss Velma" P-51D and controlled with physical model parameters provide the distinctive Mustang sound.
The P-51D model is a very precise and accurate of the Mustang that includes:
- Full damage model. This includes flight surfaces that can be torn off, bullet holes and structural damage.
- Multiple-texture maps, normal and specular maps, and 100,000 polygon construction.
- Full animated surfaces such as flaps, canopy, landing gear, stabilizers, ailerons, etc.
- Several authentic paint schemes.
- The flight dynamics of the P-51D are a further develops the Advanced Flight Model (AFM) principles started with the Su-25 and then later improved for Ka-50 and A-10C.
- A multi-segmented wing provides natural damping; and each aerodynamic surface has a number of airspeed-sensitive points for accurate slipstream effect calculation. Slipstream location and direction depends on plane speed, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, prop thrust and wing lift. All prop side effects, such as slipstream, torque, P-factor are taken in account in overall flight model.
- A true thermodynamic engine model for all engine modes from idling to maximal power is provided. The boost regulator model was created as an automatic device controlling the throttle. The Bendix-Stromberg carburetor was developed as a true simulation of real device, making it possible to achieve real malfunctions as well as the boost regulator.
- The second (“slow”) model is used for engine start-up and stop. The true thermodynamic model is used for each stroke of each cylinder, providing individual firing in cylinders, natural plane rocking during the start, over-priming, in-flight prop stop, etc.
The power plant of the P-51D is a liquid-cooled, 12-cylinder Rolls-Royce Merlin V-1650-7, built in the U.S. by the Packard Motor Car Company. It is equipped with an injection-type carburetor, a two-speed, two-stage supercharger, and develops over 1400 hp on takeoff.
The supercharger installed on the Packard Merlin engine includes two compressor stages that deliver air from the carburetor intake to the pistons under much greater pressure than would be possible through direct aspiration, allowing a greater fuel-air mixture to be burned and increasing power output.
The carburetor provides automatic control of the fuel-air mixture passed from the air intake to the supercharger and onto the engine manifold for combustion in the cylinders.
War Emergency Power
In order to provide an extra boost to the engine in extreme situations, the throttle can be moved past the gate stop by the quadrant to break the safety wire. The engine will then be opened up to its absolute limit and will give approximately 6 in. of additional manifold pressure in excess of the normal full throttle setting of 61 in. (with mixture control set to RUN or AUTO RICH and prop set for 3000 RPM.) This throttle reserve is called War Emergency Power (WEP) and should be used only in extreme situations. If used for more than 5 minutes at a time, vital parts of the engine may be damaged.
The P-51D propeller is a Hamilton Standard four-blade, hydraulic, constant-speed propeller with a diameter of 11 ft, 2 in and a blade pitch range of 42°, set at 23° at low pitch and 65° at high pitch. The propeller RPM is controlled by the Propeller Control lever on the throttle quadrant in the cockpit. The propeller governor automatically controls propeller pitch to maintain a constant speed between 1800 and 3000 RPM, depending on the Propeller Control setting. The propeller cannot be feathered.
The Mustang features two main fuel tanks, one in each wing. The main tanks have a capacity of 92 gallons in each or a total of 184 gallons. An auxiliary 85 gallon tank is installed in the fuselage aft of the cockpit. There is also provision for carrying two droppable combat tanks on the wing bomb racks. These are available in 75-gallon and 110-gallon capacities. The total fuel capacity of the aircraft, including two 110-gallon droppable tanks, is 489 U.S. gallons.
The P-51D is equipped with two separate hydraulic systems. One is the main power system for the operation of the landing gear and wing flaps. The other system is the foot pedal-operated brake system. The only connection between the two systems is that they receive their supply of fluid from the same reservoir in which a 3 cubic in. capacity cup is arranged so that in the event all the hydraulic fluid from the main power system might be lost, the brakes may still be operated.
The oil system includes a tank just forward of the firewall and a radiator in the air scoop under the fuselage. The full capacity of the oil system is 21 U.S gallons. The tank is a hopper type - that is, it is designed with hoppers or compartments which facilitate quick warm-up and also make it possible to fly the aircraft in adverse attitudes or with little oil in the system.
With the radiators located in the big air scoop aft of the cockpit under the fuselage, the cooling of the P-51 engine is quite different from that of most other fighters of the era. The engine is cooled by liquid in two separate cooling systems. The first system cools the engine proper, the second (called the after-cooling system) cools the supercharger fuel-air mixture. Each performs a separate function and the systems are not connected in any way. They both pass through a single large radiator, but in different compartments.
The electrical system is a 24-volt, direct-current (DC) system which provides power for operating the various aircraft systems, controls, and lighting equipment. The system employs the aircraft's metallic structure as a common ground return.
The oxygen system of the P-51D is a low-pressure, demand-type system. A regulator automatically provides the correct amount of oxygen required at any altitude. Controls and gauges for the oxygen system are located in the right front section of the cockpit and include an automatic mixture regulator, a pressure gauge, and a blinker indicator which opens when the pilot inhales and closes when the pilot exhales.
The radio equipment of the P-51D consists of a SCR-522 VHF (Very High Frequency) radio for voice communication and radio homing, a Detrola LF (Low Frequency) radio receiver, an AN/APS-13 rear-warning radar, and an SCR-695A IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) radio.
The landing gear consists of two main gears and a tail gear. All three units are fully retractable hydraulically and are controlled simultaneously by the Landing Gear Control handle on the left side of the cockpit. When the landing gear is retracted, the main gear is completely enclosed in the wings and the tail gear is completely enclosed in the fuselage. The tail wheel is steerable and full swiveling. When the control stick the neutral position of pulled back, the tail wheel is locked; in this position it is steerable 6° to the right or left through the use of the rudder pedals. With the control stick positioned forward of neutral, the tail wheel is unlocked for free swiveling action.
The undercarriage mechanics provide natural behavior during various flight conditions.
The P-51D is equipped with six free-firing .50 caliber machine guns, three in each wing. The guns are manually charged on the ground and fire simultaneously when the Gun Trigger switch is pressed on the front of the control stick grip. The maximum ammunition capacity is 400 rounds for each of the inboard guns and 270 rounds for the center and outboard guns for a total ammunition load of 1880 rounds. The guns can be adjusted on the ground for different convergence points based on the tactical needs of the mission. Normally the convergence point is set to 250 - 300 yards. The amount of ammunition remaining is not indicated in the cockpit.
If the mission needs require longer firing time, it’s possible to remove the center gun in each wing. This allows each outboard gun to be loaded with 500 rounds.
A single removable bomb rack can be attached to each wing. These can be loaded with either 100, 250, or 500 pound bombs. If bombs are not installed, chemical smoke tanks or droppable fuel tanks may be hung on the bomb racks. Bombs are released by pressing the Bomb-Rocket Release switch on top of the control stick grip.
In addition to the machine guns and bombs, up to ten 5 in. rockets, five under each wing, can be equipped to perform ground attack missions. When bombs or droppable tanks are carried, only six rockets can be loaded, three on each wing. The rockets are fired by pressing the Bomb Release switch on top of the control stick grip.